What was the capacity of Vemork power station?

At opening, it was the world’s largest power plant with a capacity of 108 MW. Vemork was later the site of the first plant in the world to mass-produce heavy water developing from the hydrogen production then used for the Haber process.

Why did Norway have a heavy water plant?

During the German occupation of Norway in World War II, the production of heavy water was judged to be a serious enough threat that at least five separate attacks were launched in order to prevent the Germans from making an atomic bomb.

Why did the Germans make heavy water in Norway?

Plutonium production

The Germans found that a chain reaction could not be sustained if graphite was used as a moderator, and abandoned it. Unaware that this was due to impurities, they did not test ultra-pure graphite (which would have been suitable). Instead, they settled on a heavy-water-based reactor design.

Where was the Telemark heavy water plant?


In 1906, the newly founded power company Norsk Hydro-Elektrisk started building the Vemork power station near the Rjukan waterfall in Telemark, Norway. When it completed in 1911, it became the world’s largest hydroelectric power plant.

Where was the heavy water plant in Norway?


Vemork is about 100 miles west of Oslo, on the edge of this ice-bound precipice. It was the only plant in the world that produced heavy water, which was the key ingredient in the German atomic bomb research program.

Did the King of Norway survive WWII?

Haakon VII reigned during two world wars. His refusal to submit when a German-pressured Storting body asked him to abdicate inspired the Norwegians to resist the German occupation during World War II. Haakon VII returned from exile in England to Norway in June 1945.

Can you drink heavy water?

You could consume a single glass of heavy water without suffering any major ill effects, however, should you drink any appreciable volume of it, you might begin to feel dizzy. 1 That’s because the density difference between regular water and heavy water would alter the density of the fluid in your inner ear.

Can you drink holy water?

New research shows that, in Austria at least, holy water is contaminated with fecal matter. Here is a link to the study, conducted by scientists at Vienna University Medical School’s Institute of Hygiene and Applied Immunology, suggesting that holy water is not safe to drink.

Why heavy water is poisonous?

The reason for these adverse effects is that replacing hydrogen with its heavier isotope deuterium slows down the rate of any chemical reaction in which the chemical bond to the hydrogen atom is broken.

Is heavy water poison?

It is more toxic to malignant cells than normal cells, but the concentrations needed are too high for regular use. As may occur in chemotherapy, deuterium-poisoned mammals die of a failure of bone marrow (producing bleeding and infections) and of intestinal-barrier functions (producing diarrhea and loss of fluids).

Can heavy water freeze?

Actually, water made with the deuterium isotope of hydrogen rather than ordinary hydrogen fits the bill. This “heavy water” actually freezes at 3.8°C (39°F) rather than 0°C.

Why is heavy water sweet?

The present study resolves a long-standing controversy about the taste of heavy water, confirms that its sweet taste is mediated by the human TAS1R2/TAS1R3 taste receptor, and opens way to future studies of potential sites and modes of action.

Can you drink tritium?

Given its low energy beta emission and corresponding short range in air (6 mm), tritium poses a health risk only when ingested, inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Exposure of the general public to extremely low doses of tritium most often occurs through the ingestion of tritiated water.

Does heavy water weigh more?

Heavy water is indeed heavier than normal water (which contains a tiny amount of heavy water molecules naturally), and heavy-water ice will sink in normal water.

Is tritium a liquid?

As a liquid, tritium moves easily through the environment just like water. Tritium occurs naturally in the environment in very low concentrations.

Who discovered tritium?

Tritium was discovered in 1934 by the physicists Ernest Rutherford, M.L. Oliphant, and Paul Harteck, who bombarded deuterium (D, the hydrogen isotope of mass number 2) with high-energy deuterons (nuclei of deuterium atoms) according to the equation D + D → H + T.

Can tritium be made?

Tritium can be made in production nuclear reactors, i.e., reactors designed to optimize the generation of tritium and special nuclear materials such as plutonium-239. Tritium is produced by neutron absorption of a lithium-6 atom.

What is the charge of sodium 22?

3.1Computed Properties

Property Name Property Value Reference
Formal Charge 0 Computed by PubChem
Complexity 0 Computed by Cactvs (PubChem release 2021.05.07)
Isotope Atom Count 1 Computed by PubChem
Defined Atom Stereocenter Count 0 Computed by PubChem