Beulah Simms, 1970

Hokti's vpvskeAn vtapv is a wooden paddle about the size of a small boat oar. The flared end of the paddle is used to stir the vpvske as one would use a long-handled shovel or spoon, to keep the vpvske from burning as it is browned.

A Dictionary of Creek/Muskogee, 2000

Wooden paddle (shaped like a canoe paddle) used to stir vpvske or osafke or other foods in large pots.


A Dictionary of Creek/Muskogee by Jack B. Martin and Margaret McKane Mauldin (Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press, 2000).

Other Sources

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