Charles Gibson, 1918
A gallon, or more if needed, of shelled flint corn should be soaked overnight in a strong solution of ash-lye (water with ash-lye drippings).
Pour off any excess solution in the morning. Pound the corn in the mortar and break the grain into large pieces. Clean off the husks from the grain in a fanner. Pound the clean, broken grain to meal, taking the mass out of the mortar and sifting it from time to time until all the grain is pounded down to a fine meal. Mix a quart of this meal to a stiff dough with boiling water to which add about a cupful of strong ash-lye drippings. A larger amount of dough can be made by using the same proportions of meal and ash-lye drippings. Form pieces of the dough into the shape and size of ordinary doughnuts, with a hole in the center, and bake these in a Dutch oven until thoroughly done. Place the freshly baked bread in the sunshine until perfectly dry. It will be hard as wood. The rings of hard bread were strung on heavy string, and hung on the wall or rafters to keep indefinitely.
Creek Indian hunters used to carry strings of this bread tied to their saddles, on long hunting expeditions, without cover from rain or snow or any kind of weather. The backbone joints of fresh game—antelope, deer, buffalo—were stewed until tender; then a dozen or so of the hard, dry corn bread rings were put into the pot and after cooking for a little while they softened and mixed in the stew. It is told that this was the Creek Indian hunter’s choice bread; it was his ration on the war path.
Lilah D. Lindsey, 1933
Scald whole white corn in lye water, drain until dry, pound into meal. Burn pea hulls (black eyed or cow pea, or any kind) and pound to a powder, sift and add to your corn meal; using hot water, knead into balls size of baseball, drop into boiling water and cook one-half hour. To one part of meal use one-half part pea meal.
James H. Hill, ca. 1936-40
Shell black or white corn, put water in [a pot] to boil, set it over the fire, put in a small amount of strong ashes without any charcoal, and when it boils, put in the shelled corn, and after it boils, take out the corn, and wash it off until all the corn skin is removed; and when it’s dry, put it in a mortar, and when you pound it with the pestle, add fine ashes from bean hulls or burnt corn cobs, pound it fine, sift it with a fanner, remove the fine portion, stir in some boiled beans that have been cooked, mix it with water, and when it’s stiff, break off about one handful, squeeze it, make it into a ball, or make it flat and round, and when they’ve been placed in boiling water and have cooked, they call it cvtvhakv.
It’s good to drink the soupy juice.
Beulah Simms, 1970
Place dried green beans and green English pea hulls in a container and burn to a crisp. The hulls must be clean and free of dirt or the bread will be gritty. Ground the burned material into a fine powder. Mix with the corn meal. Drop in three or four drops of kvpe-cvfke for flavor.
Mix with boiling water and form into biscuits and drop into boiling water and boil until cooked. It should boil about one hour. Beans or sweet potatoes may be mixed in before making into biscuits.
Serve with fresh pork.
Native American Recipes, 1996
Bean hull powder is made by burning bean hulls in a pot and sifting the ashes. Put one-half cup ash-lye in a large pot of water and boil. Use enough water to mix with four cups cornmeal and three tablespoons bean hull powder and form into dough. Form into balls a little larger than golf balls and drop into a pot of boiling water. Cook for one hour. Serve hot.
When using corn flour (Spanish flour may be substituted for cornmeal) and finely ground purple pea hulls (may be substituted for bean hull powder), prepare in same way except pat the dough balls until thin. Cook in boiling water until done, about one hour.
Marquis Martin, 2006
Boil water. Mix about four pounds masa cornmeal and three tablespoons of bluing in warm water until thin enough to roll into golf-ball size balls. Boil until they float to the top.