How and why was the boundary between West and East Berlin decided to be where it was?

Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize physically the “Iron Curtain” that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.

Berlin Wall
Demolished 9 November 1989 – 1994
Dimensions

How was the border between East and West Germany decided?

The inner German border originated from plans by the Allies of World War II to divide a defeated Germany into occupation zones. Their boundaries were drawn along the territorial boundaries of 19th-century German states and provinces that had largely disappeared with the unification of Germany in 1871.

Why was Berlin divided into East and West?

After World War II, defeated Germany was divided into Soviet, American, British and French zones of occupation. The city of Berlin, though technically part of the Soviet zone, was also split, with the Soviets taking the eastern part of the city.

Where was the border between East and West Berlin?

There were several border crossings between East and West Berlin: Bornholmer Straße border crossing, on Bornholmer Straße over the Bösebrücke between Berlin-Prenzlauer Berg and Berlin-Wedding (opened 1961). Brandenburg Gate between Berlin-Tiergarten and Berlin-Mitte, opened on 13 August 1961.

Why was there a wall between East and West Germany?

The Berlin Wall was built by the German Democratic Republic during the Cold War to prevent its population from escaping Soviet-controlled East Berlin to West Berlin, which was controlled by the major Western Allies. It divided the city of Berlin into two physically and ideologically contrasting zones.

What type of boundary is between East and West Germany?

Along with the separate and much longer Inner German border (IGB), which demarcated the border between East and West Germany, it came to symbolize physically the “Iron Curtain” that separated Western Europe and the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War.

What was the main reason for the Berlin Wall?

The official purpose of this Berlin Wall was to keep so-called Western “fascists” from entering East Germany and undermining the socialist state, but it primarily served the objective of stemming mass defections from East to West.

How was West Berlin connected to West Germany?

The divided city of Berlin lay deep in Soviet territory and was connected to West Germany by formally agreed road, rail, waterway and air ‘corridors’. Anxious to oust their former American, British and French allies, the Soviets embarked on a progressive strangulation of the city, beginning in January 1948.

When did East and West Germany split?

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For 28 years, the wall split Germany like an iron curtain, into the capitalist West and the communist East. Estimated hundreds had died trying to cross that wall, and beginning in September 1989, demonstrations demanding reform were swelling quickly week by week.

When did the Berlin Wall go up and why?

To halt the exodus to the West, Soviet leader Nikita Khruschev recommended to East Germany that it close off access between East and West Berlin. On the night of August 12-13, 1961, East German soldiers laid down more than 30 miles of barbed wire barrier through the heart of Berlin.

Was Berlin in East or West Germany?

East Germany

Although Berlin was in East Germany, as the capital it was also shared between Britain, France, America and the Soviet Union. The inner German border was officially closed in 1952 and the city became the main route for disaffected East Germans reaching the West.

Why was the open border with West Berlin a problem for East Germany?

East German leader, Walter Ulbricht’s solution to the problem was to either take over West Berlin or close the border. Initially, Khrushchev refused to allow the East Germans to close the border in Berlin because he felt it would exacerbate the tensions of the cold war and make communism look bad.

Which is the most famous border crossing between West and East Berlin?

The others were Checkpoint Bravo, where the autobahn crossed from East Germany into West Berlin, and most famous of all, Checkpoint Charlie, the only place where non-Germans could cross by road or foot from West to East Berlin.

What is unique or special about the location of West Berlin?

West Berlin was formally controlled by the Western Allies and entirely surrounded by the Soviet-controlled East Berlin and East Germany. West Berlin had great symbolic significance during the Cold War, as it was widely considered by westerners an “island of freedom” and America’s most loyal counterpart in Europe.

Who crossed the Berlin Wall?

East Germans

Between 1961 and 1989, thousands of East Germans made risky border crossings. Around 5,000 of them crossed over the Berlin Wall at great personal risk—and their attempts to do so ranged from sneaky to suicidal.

Who was the last person killed trying to cross the Berlin Wall?

Chris Gueffroy (21 June 1968 – 6 February 1989) was the last person to be shot and the second-last to die in an escape attempt while trying to escape from East Berlin to West Berlin across the Berlin Wall.

Chris Gueffroy
Monuments Chris Gueffroy memorial
Known for Last to be killed by use of firearms at the Berlin Wall

How many died crossing the Berlin Wall?

Between 1961 and 1989, at least 140 people were killed or died at the Wall in connection with the GDR border regime: 101 people who tried to flee through the border fortifications were shot, died by accident, or committed suicide.

How did the Berlin Wall fall?

It was on 9 November 1989, five days after half a million people gathered in East Berlin in a mass protest, that the Berlin Wall dividing communist East Germany from West Germany crumbled. East German leaders had tried to calm mounting protests by loosening the borders, making travel easier for East Germans.

Was there a wall between East and West Germany?

The Berlin Wall was not one wall, but two. Measuring 155 kilometres (96 miles) long and four metres (13 feet) tall, these walls were separated by a heavily guarded, mined corridor of land known as the ‘death strip’.

Where did the Berlin Wall fall?

Fall of the Berlin Wall

Germans stand on top of the Wall in front of the Brandenburg Gate in the days before the Wall was torn down
Date 9 November 1989
Time 18:53–19:01 (CET; UTC+1, press conference)
Location East Berlin, East Germany West Berlin, West Germany
Cause Revolutions of 1989